Cut the Budget … By Cutting Length of Session

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CalendarAs the S.C. legislative session finally comes to a close this week, it’s worth asking whether lawmakers are making good use of their time – and taxpayer dollars.


As the chart from the National Conference of State Legislatures indicates below, South Carolina’s legislative session is one of the longest in the country. According to article III, § 9 of the state constitution, the annual session of the General Assembly shall convene “on the second Tuesday of January of each year.” The constitution, however, does not stipulate any limit to the length of the session. Rather, state law (§ 2-1-180) requires that session end by 5 p.m. on the first Thursday in June, unless legislators agree by a two-thirds vote to extend it. Legislation introduced in 2009 would have shortened session by one (H 3405) to two (S 209) months; but none of these bills moved beyond committee.  


Shortening session would accomplish two things. First, it would reduce administrative costs. Consider that the proposed FY2010-11 budget allocates $30 million for House and Senate operations: $17.6 million for the House (or $142,058 per representative); and $12.3 million for the Senate (or $268,047 per senator). (The governor has vetoed the $4 million-plus funding increase both chambers gave themselves this year.)


As compensation for their service, legislators receive the following, according to the website:


  • $10,400 annually (see here, for a state-by-state comparison)
  • $1,000 per month in-district compensation, as authorized by budget proviso 70.15
  • Subsistence expenses per day for session, except days when local uncontested matters are considered (cf. proviso 70.4)
  • Travel expenses for distance traveled (at standard IRS rate) going to and returning from Columbia on weekend adjournments
  • $1,800 (max) for annual telephone charges (per House rules)
  • $600 per session for postage

Senate and House staffers are also well paid, according to a Feb. 2010 Nerve article.

Even more important than the cost savings is that shortening session would be an important step toward streamlining government. It goes without saying that lawmakers could fulfill their duties more efficiently. South Carolina’s legislative session is five months long. By comparison, legislatures in five states, including Texas, meet every other year. As reported by  The Nerve: “‘An average session length is 120 calendar days.’

That means the Palmetto State’s session is a full-on month longer than the norm. … In Georgia, the session is limited to 40 legislative days; in Florida, 60 calendar days.”


Moreover, it’s clear legislators have plenty of time to spare. This past session, lawmakers spent hours debating state heritage animals. They also found time to consider hundreds of memorial resolutions and bills, such as H 4865, which would designate the Florence Pecan Festival the official state pecan festival. At the same time, one reason legislators failed to pass a bill (H 3047) requiring roll call voting is because they apparently “don’t have enough time” to vote on the record.


Here’s a look at the length of legislative sessions around the nation. In the table below, “L” refers to legislative days and “C” refers to calendar days.


State Current Session Length Limit Method of Setting
Alabama 30 L in 105 C Statute
Alaska 90 C Statute
Arizona Sat. of week in which 100th C falls Chamber rule
Arkansas Odd-60 C

Even-30 C

California Odd-None

Even-Nov 30


Odd-Sept 12

Even-Aug 31




Chamber Rule


Colorado 120 C Constitution
Connecticut Odd-Wed after 1st Mon in June

Even- Wed after 1st Mon in May

Delaware 30-Jun Constitution
Florida 60 C Constitution
Georgia 40 L Constitution
Hawaii 60 L Constitution
Idaho None Not applicable
Illinois None Not applicable
Indiana Odd-Apr 29

Even-Mar 14

Iowa Odd-110 C

Even-100 C

Kansas Odd-None

Even-90 C

Kentucky Odd: 30 L or Mar 30

Even:60 L or Apr 15

Louisiana Odd-45 L in 60 C

Even-60 L in 85 C

Maine Odd-3rd Wed in June

Even-3rd Wed in Apr

Maryland 90 C Constitution



Formal sessions:

Odd-3rd Wed in November

Even-July 31

Informal sessions: None


Chamber rule

Michigan None Not applicable
Minnesota 120 L total within biennium or 1st Mon after 3rd Sat in May each year Constitution
Mississippi 90 C except year after gubernatorial election, then 125 C Constitution
Missouri 30-May Constitution
Montana Biennial session; 90 L Constitution
Nebraska Odd-90 L

Even-60 L

Nevada Biennial session ; 120 C Constitution
New Hampshire 45 L or July 1 Indirect
New Jersey None Not applicable
New Mexico Odd-60 C

Even-30 C

New York None Not applicable
North Carolina None Not applicable
North Dakota Biennial session ; 80 L Constitution
Ohio None Not applicable
Oklahoma Last Fri in May Constitution
Oregon Biennial session ; None Not applicable
Pennsylvania None Not applicable
Rhode Island None Not applicable
South Carolina 1st Thurs in June Statute
South Dakota 40 L Constitution
Tennessee 90 L Indirect
Texas Biennial session ; 140 C Constitution
Utah 45 C Constitution
Vermont None  
Virginia Odd-30 C

Even-60 C

Washington Odd-105 C

Even-60 C

West Virginia 60 C Constitution
Wisconsin None Not applicable
Wyoming Odd-40 L

Even-20 L







Nothing in the foregoing should be construed as an attempt to aid or hinder passage of any legislation.

Copyright  © 2010 South Carolina Policy Council.



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